Big Sky Exercise Physiology Services

Lone Peak Performance offers a wide range of services targeted to optimize human performance. By working with Lone Peak's Exercise Physiologist, Tom Cuddy, you will acquire the tools and awareness needed to train with purpose. Whether you're training for your first triathlon, trying to beat your best time in the Big Sky Biggie, or striving to improve your overall health, Tom will help you achieve your health and fitness goals with data and evidence-based plans individualized to your needs.

What Performance Testing Can Do For You

Results from performance testing represent so much more than just bragging rights. Performance tests like VO2max, Lactate Threshold, and Power Profiling give coaches the exact information they need to plan and design training plans that are as efficient and effective as possible. Why waste time doing something that won’t lead you to your goals?

 The Importance of Setting Performance Goals

It is crucial to define the demands of what you’re training for. Will your training lead to the specific physiological adaptations required to meet these demands? Performance testing exposes your strengths and weaknesses as an endurance athlete so that you know exactly how to train.


  • Physiology & Performance Testing


    VO2max, or maximal oxygen consumption, refers to an individual’s ability to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscle to utilize for energy during intense or maximal exercise.

    • This is the ultimate measure of cardiopulmonary and metabolic function and is generally considered to be one of the best indicators of endurance performance.
    • This test is the gold standard for determining cardiorespiratory fitness because it demonstrates how efficiently an individual can transport oxygen from environmental air to working muscles to meet the metabolic demands of aerobic exercise.
    • Efficiency in oxygen utilization leads to enhanced energy production and the ability to sustain higher intensities of exercise for longer periods of time. Results from this test are influenced by genetics, training status, age, and sex.

    What is involved?

    • When conducting a VO2max test, the individual first warms up on their chosen exercise modality (ex. treadmill, bike, etc.) and is familiarized with wearing the face mask. The face mask allows us to directly measure the volume of inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbon dioxide.
    • We are also continuously measuring heart rate to help determine precise heart rate-based training zones.
    • The test is designed to bring the individual to maximal effort by exercising at a fixed pace with increased intensity until volitional fatigue/exhaustion. For example, a runner may run at a speed of 5.0 mph while increasing the grade (%) every minute until he or she decides they cannot go any longer. 

    Power Profiling

    Power profiling is the ultimate test for cyclists looking to take their riding to the next level.

    • The demands of different types of cycling events (i.e. cyclocross, mountain biking, time trialing, stage racing, etc.) require a cyclist to train specifically for their given event. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a cyclist’s profile in relation to the demands of their event ensures training plans are targeting what will make someone most successful.
    • The test focuses on four different ‘all-out’ cycling trials of different lengths to establish a full profile of the cyclist.

    "All-Out" Cycling Trials

    Neuromuscular Power: 5-second sprint

    • This sprint represents a cyclists’ ability to recruit fast-twitch muscle fibers as fast as possible to put peak power down on their pedals.
    • Any cycling events that involve quick sprints or steep uphills requires a high neuromuscular power.
    • The values generated from this sprint are: peak power output, time to peak power, and peak cadence

    Anaerobic Capacity: 1-minute time trial

    • This time trial is designed to a cyclists’ ability to quickly burn muscle glycogen and shuttle lactate out of a muscle cell so that they can maintain high power output for a full minute.
    • The values generated from this trial are: peak anaerobic power and fatigue Index (power drop off)

    Aerobic Capacity: 5-minute time trial

    • This is the power an individual would most likely reach during a VO2max test
    • The values generated from this trial are: peak anaerobic power and wattage/velocity at VO2max

    Functional Threshold Power: 20-minute time trial

    • This time trial represents the average power a cyclist can hold for one hour. This is an important power number for cyclists who are competing for long duration. It describes a cyclist’s ability to use fat as a fuel source, their mechanical efficiency, and how well they can recover.
    • The values generated from this trial is: Functional Threshold Power (FTP)

    Resting Metabolic Rate 



  • Biomechanics

    • Bike Fitting
        • At Lone Peak Performance, we firmly believe that experiencing pain or discomfort while cycling is unacceptable. In addition, to be an efficient cyclist, a rider needs to be positioned to get the most out of their active muscle groups.
        • To achieve a cycling position that is comfortable and efficient, we film the cyclist with slow-motion cameras and make dynamic joint measurements with biomechanics software to understand the cyclists’ dynamic body alignment.
        • Once we identify the issue(s), changes are made to the bike to ensure a precise fit. This appointment lasts between 1-3 hours and includes cleat adjustments and a cycling-specific mobility/strength assessment.
    • Running Analysis
        • The Lone Peak Running Lab will help you optimize your running whether you are looking to improve your running efficiency for an upcoming race, are getting into running and want to prevent injury, or you would like to screen how your injury rehab is going. 
        • Within our Running Lab, we analyze the runner on a treadmill using a high-speed camera and biomechanics software to identifying biomechanical abnormalities.
        • Once analyzed, a variety of interventions may be applied including:
            • Running Biofeedback
            • Mobility Exercises
            • Functional Strength Exercises
            • Cadence Drills
            • PT referral
    • 1080 Maps
    • 1080 Quantum
    • Sprint Analysis (1080 Sprint)
    • Lifting Analysis
  • Endurance Coaching